Valencia is a municipality and a city of Spain, capital of the homonymous province and the Valencian Community. With a population of 791 413 inhabitants (INE, 2018), which rises to 1,559,908 inhabitants if its urban space is included, it is the third most populous city and metropolitan area in Spain, behind Madrid and Barcelona.
Valencia was founded by the Romans as a colony in the year 138 a. C., being consul Tenth June Gross Galaico, and was named Valentia Edetanorum. Several centuries later, in 711, the Muslims occupied the city contributing their language, religion and customs, such as the introduction of irrigation systems and the introduction of new crops. In 1238 the Christian king Jaime I of Aragon reconquered the city, and distributed the lands among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as testified in the Llibre del Repartiment, as well as created a new law for the city, the Fueros of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the kingdom of Valencia. In the eighteenth century, Felipe V repealed the privileges as punishment for the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Austracists in the war of Spanish succession. In 1982, Valencia was established as the capital of the current Valencian Community, as stated in the Statute of Autonomy.
The city is located on the banks of the Turia River, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, right in the center of the Gulf of Valencia, although at the time the Romans founded it, it was on a river island of Turia, about four kilometers away from the sea. About ten kilometers south of the city is the Albufera of Valencia, which has been owned by the Valencia City Council since 1911 when it was bought from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas. The lagoon is one of the largest lakes in Spain, since it has about 2100 hectares, to which we must add an area of 14 100 hectares of marjal dedicated to the cultivation of rice. Due to its cultural value, Historical and ecological, this natural site was the first natural park declared by the Generalitat Valenciana, in 1986.
At present, the city’s economy is focused on services, since about 84% of the active population employed belongs to the services sector. However, the city maintains an industrial base, with a percentage of employed population of 5.5%. On the other hand, agricultural activities, even having a relatively minor importance with only 1.9% of the active population occupied, survive in the municipality with a total of 3973 hectares, which are mostly occupied by crops of Orchard and citrus.
Its historic center is one of the largest in Spain, with approximately 169 hectares and thanks to its historical and monumental heritage and its various scenic and cultural spaces make it one of the cities with the largest influx of national and international tourism throughout the country . Among its most representative monuments are the Miguelete, the Cathedral, the Serranos and Quart Towers, the Silk Exchange, declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 1996, and the City of Arts and Sciences. It should also be noted that the Museum of Fine Arts in Valencia is the most important pictorial museum in the Valencian Community, being the second art gallery in Spain, 15 16 as well as the Valencian Institute of Modern Art (IVAM), the which aims to investigate and disseminate the art of the twentieth century.
Due to its long history, this is a city with countless festivals and traditions, among which the faults, which were declared as festivals of international tourist interest on January 25, 1965 and Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity for the UNESCO on November 30, 2016, and the Water Tribunal, also declared as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2009. In addition to this, Valencia has been, and is currently, the scene of various world events that have contributed to set up the city and give it international projection, such as the 1909 Regional Exhibition, the 32nd and the 33rd Sailing America Cup, the Formula 1 European Grand Prix, the Tennis Open 500, and the Global Champions Tour of Horse Riding.